Behavior elements in the Technology Layer are similar to the behavior elements in the other layers.
A distinction is made between the external behavior of nodes in terms of technology services, and the internal behavior of these nodes; i.e., technology functions that realize these services.
Technology Function Concept Notation
A technology function describes the internal behavior of a node, which represents a collection of technology behavior that can be performed by a node.
A technology function abstracts from the way it is implemented and only exhibits the necessary behavior is specified. It has the following characteristics:
- A technology function may realize technology services.
- Technology services of other technology functions may serve technology functions.
- A technology function may access technology objects.
- A node may be assigned to a technology function (which means that the node performs the technology function).
- The name of a technology function should preferably be a verb ending with “ing”.
Technology Function Concept Example
In the ArchiMate Diagram below, the database management system (DBMS) node performs two infrastructure functions: providing data access (realizing a data access service for application software), and managing data (realizing a data management service for database administration).
Technology Process Concept Notation
A technology process describes internal behavior of a node. A technology process represents a sequence of technology behaviors that achieves a specific outcome. If its behavior is exposed externally, this is done through one or more technology services.
A technology process has the following characteristics:
- A technology process may realize technology services.
- A technology process abstracts from the way it is implemented. Only the necessary behavior is specified.
- It can use technology objects as input and use or transform these to produce other technology objects as output.
- Other technology services may serve (be used by) a technology process.
- A technology process may access technology objects.
- A node may be assigned to a technology process, which means that this node performs the process.
- The name of a technology process should clearly identify a series of technology behaviors; e.g., “System boot sequence” or “Replicate database”.
Technology Service Concept Notation
A technology service represents an explicitly defined exposed technology behavior.
A technology service exposes the functionality of a node to its environment. This functionality is accessed through one or more technology interfaces and it has the following characteristics:
A technology service is realized by a technology function or process.
A technology service should be meaningful from the point of view of the environment
it should provide a unit of behavior that is, in itself, useful to its users, such as application components and nodes.
- A technology service may serve application components or nodes.
- A technology may require, use, and produce artifacts, e.g., a file containing a message.
- A technology service may consist of sub-services.
- A technology services may include messaging, storage, naming, and directory services.
- The name of a technology service should preferably be a verb ending with “ing”; e.g., “messaging”. Also, a name explicitly containing the word “service” may be used.
Technology Layer Example
The example below shows, a technology event Database Update triggers a technology process Remote Data Replication, which is served by a technology service Replicate Database Updates.
This technology service is realized by a technology function Database Replication, which is composed of four other technology functions:
- Administrate Replication
- Handle Local Updates
- Handle Remote Updates
- Monitor Replication Status.
There are information flows from the Administrate Replication technology function to the other three technology functions.